Immersive Audio Rendering Algorithms
Vector Based Amplitude Panning
Vector based amplitude panning (or VBAP) is an interaural level difference (ILD) sound localization technique developed by Ville Pulkki and his team, it was first presented in 1996. As stated in the paper, it was "developed as an approach to meet the computer music composers’ lack of a tool to mix multiple input channels to a sound field formed by multiple loudspeakers placed around and above the listener".
Distance Based Amplitude Panning
Distance based amplitude panning (DBAP) has been introduced as a flexible alternative to other more restrictive sound localization techniques such as VBAP and Ambisonics. DBAP is a matrix-based spatialization technique that can have applications in environments where the listening "sweet spot" is not restricted to a particular locus or the speaker layout is not regular. For this reason, DBAP can be used in a variety of real-world situations such as concerts, stage productions, installations and museum sound design . It is still a relatively new technique for sound localisation.
Ambisonics was first introduced as a "with-height" audio recording technique in Gerzon’s paper. It was presented as a means to capture and then reproduce a sound field in both vertical and horizontal directions surrounding a listener using multiple mic capsules to capture directivity. Since then, the study of Ambisonics has led to the development of studio microphone technology capable of unprecedented accuracy and realism (the "Sound Field" microphone), and a range of sound manipulation techniques for both single sounds and whole sound fields. It uses an encoding and decoding process which is of great benefit since it allows an encoded audio signal to be decoded to many different loudspeaker layouts provided they meet basic requirements.